O reconhecimento e sucesso crescente de suas idéias não foram, apenas, motivos de regozijo para Freud. Ele pressentia os abusos que poderiam ser cometidos em nome da Psicanálise assim que ela se difundisse largamente. Com o intuito de prevenir o uso indevido, os pioneiros decidiram fundar, em 1910, um organismo que coordenasse o movimento psicanalítico mundial. Seu objetivo seria estabelecer os preceitos éticos e de rigor científico para a prática da Psicanálise, bem como zelar pela manutenção de padrões básicos para a formação de analistas. Sendo assim, a Associação Psicanalítica Internacional - IPA - surgiu com a função primordial de garantir a qualificação de seus membros. Para tanto, a IPA coordena, atualmente, 66 sociedades componentes e 5 Grupos de Estudos, distribuídos por 33 países. Seu quadro associativo conta, até agora, com mais de 11.000 membros. Além disso, por tratar-se de uma agremiação científica, estimula o avanço e a difusão do conhecimento psicanalítico. O intercâmbio entre seus membros é mantido sistematicamente através da circulação de um Boletim e, a cada dois anos, pela realização de um Congresso Internacional de Psicanálise e uma Conferência de Analistas Didatas.
Nosso colega Dr Cláudio Laks Eizirik foi presidente da IPA entre os anos 2005 a 2009.
O atual presidente é o Dr. Charles M. T. Hanly do Canadá.
IPA em Evento nas Nações Unidas
O Presidente da IPA e psicalista didata da SPPA, Dr. Cláudio Eizirik discursou no evento "Approaches to Prevention of Intergenerational Transmission of Hate, War and Violence", nas Nações Unidas.
No texto abaixo, o discurso proferido pelo Dr. Cláudio.
Approaches to prevention of intergenerational transmission of war, hatred and violence - a psychoanalytic perspective
Cláudio Laks Eizirik
The year two hundred an six is the 150th anniversary of Freud’s birth. It is thus a privilege and an honor in this auspicious year to address you today, on behalf of the International Psychoanalytical Association. I would like to present some psychoanalytic views on one of the most challenging issues that currently confronts us all. I would also like to pay tribute to the United Nations for its brave efforts to face these complex issues and other similar challenges- in both war and in peace.
Among Freud´s many contributions to the understanding of the human mind and behavior, I would like particularly to stress his insights on the continuous internal conflict between love and aggression and the ways this tension produces powerful unconscious mental mechanisms that can lead to different expressions of hatred, violence and war. This internal struggle is significantly influenced by the way early upbringing contributes to fostering aggression or, alternatively, to developing and enhancing the capacity for love and consideration for others.
This means that a lifelong process of mental growth begins with the quality of the mother-child relationship, together with the presence of a father figure (or some equivalent), essential in supporting in the development of the reality principle. The family and the community then holds, stimulates and assists in the capacity for the individual to think independently and to transform primitive feelings into the expression of civilized relations with others.
This process of development of subjectivity needs, ideally, optimum or at least adequate internal and external conditions. When democratic and open social structures are lacking, significant damage may occur.
Analytic treatment of victims of the holocaust, dictatorships, situations of abuse or different expressions of violence demonstrates how these traumatic events are psychically integrated and represented. Often there is unresolved mourning and the inability to symbolize. These deficits in mental processes can be and often are passed on across the generations, only to reemerge in subsequent later generations.
An important distinction has been demonstrated between intergenerational and transgenerational psychic transmission. Intergenerational transmission refers to the conscious transmission of mental content and processes such as identification and fantasies, which are organized into family history and inherited by the next generation, resulting in a structuring effect on the mental apparatus. Transgenerational transmission occurs unconsciously and is transmitted to future generations. It involves mental contents which are dissociated and not symbolized through words or stories. Thus primitive and unintegrated affects resulting from trauma, pain and loss are not worked through and are not mastered. This kind of transmission remains encapsulated and acts as a violent intrusion into the individual’s sense of self as well as being transmitted to future generations.
When lies and misdemeanors are perceived as sanctioned social values within a culture, for instance the different forms of prejudice manifested through racism, a lack of respect for minorities, women, the elderly and immigrants, this can produce transgenerational transmission. When it is the father figure who provides the lie, it becomes impossible to develop the mental apparatus and the notion of subjectivity and to establish appropriate social values.
Among other features, psychoanalysis is a discipline whose insights can provide an in-depth and critical view of a culture and its mental health.
The current situation in the world, with areas dominated by grinding poverty, ethnic wars, religious fundamentalism, urban violence and other similar situations, produces trauma and violence which can only contribute to the transmission of more hatred and violence to future generations.
So what do we do to prevent this negative transmission of hatred? In my view, prevention requires urgent action, particularly action directed towards children and their families, where this hateful and violent transmission manifests itself. If left unattended it might eventually produce the terrorist perpetrators of tomorrow. Improving basic conditions of life, health, and education through massive investment in the poor areas of the world is a concrete and essential way of preventing the development of hatred, war and violence.
It is similarly important to address and deal with the massive and destructive trade in arms, and to regulate and contain the worst excesses of market economies in order to encourage mutually respectful and collaborative cultures, which can develop harmoniously and, above all, peacefully towards one another.
Informed by analytic knowledge, we know that establishing ways of reducing social division and the projection of hatred are also important mechanisms for social cohesion. This requires finding ways to implement the difficult task of listening to others, be it the stranger, or even the enemy. It was Freud who discussed how this “stranger” is in fact someone who represents a hidden and unwanted part of ourselves. A good example of listening to the other was recently established at the Baremboim-Said Foundation, where, through music, Israeli and Palestinian children learn how to listen to each other and to play together.
From a psychoanalytic perspective, we understand the need to produce and play new sounds, the sounds that can only be heard when collaborative efforts put together different people with differing values and prejudices in order to build tolerance and new ways of working together.
As an international association whose main aims are the development of a scientific discipline and the maintenance of high standards of analytic training, the IPA in recent years had also established new committees to consider and to develop our thinking, through conferences and publications, on issues such as terror and terrorism, prejudice, anti Semitism, psychic effects of social exclusion, and the development of children and adolescents. Our United Nations Committee is also actively involved on consideration of social issues through our collaboration with you in New York. Our members are not only engaged in analytic work aiming to reduce the psychic pain of our patients. Many are also active more broadly in the community in areas of education, psychiatry, psychology, and programs of prevention and mental health.
The psychoanalytic contribution to the prevention of hatred, war and violence thus occurs in two ways. First by treating patients whose psychic transformation will also produce positive changes in their subsequent generations and, and second by taking part in joint activities or initiatives where we can show how much open listening can correct distorted perceptions and increase the ability to tolerate and identify with the others.
This is naturally not an easy task. It is also an intergenerational one. We share Freud’s conviction that, despite many challenges, the voice of reason is soft, but never gives up the attempt to be heard. We must all join together both to listen and be heard in this uncertain and unpredictable world.